Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Complete Test 1 by Longman)
Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test

16. Light can travels from the Sun to the Earth in eight minutes and twenty seconds.
Pembahasan Jawaban: travels --> travel
Modal + Verb 1 murni tanpa embel-embel: Modal (can) + verb 1 (travel)

17. Every human typically have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes in most cells.
Pembahasan Jawaban: have --> has
Subject Verb Agreement: every termasuk dalam kategori singular. Jadi butuh verb yang singular (has).

18. Most sedimentary rocks start forming when grains of clay, silt, or sandy settle in river valleys or on the bottoms of lakes and oceans.
Pembahasan Jawaban: sandy (adjective) --> sand (noun)
Parallel Structure: noun, noun, noun --> clay (noun ), salt (noun), sand (noun)

19. The total thickness of the ventricular walls of the heart are about three times that of the atria.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are --> is
Subject Verb Agreement: Singular Subject (thickness) + Singular Verb (is)

20. The type of jazz known as "swing" was introduced by Duke Ellington when he wrote and records "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing."
Pembahasan Jawaban: records (verb 1 + s) --> recorded (Verb 2)
Parallel Structure (tense): wrote (verb 2) + recorded (verb 2)
- Verb 2 = past tense (lampau)
- Verb 1 = prsent tense (sekarang)

21. The bones of mammals, not alike those of other vertebrates, show a high degree of differentiation.
Pembahasan Jawaban: not like --> unlike
alike digunakan pada akhir kalimat / klausa

22. The neocortex has evolved more recently then other layers of the brain.
Pembahasan Jawaban: then --> than
Comparative Degree: more + than bukan more + then 

23. The United States receives a large amount of revenue from taxation of a tobacco products.
Pembahasan Jawaban: of a --> of
perhatikan kata products, terdapat s yang menandakan plural (lebih dari 1 produk).

24. Much fats are composed of one molecule of glycerin combined with three molecules of fatty acids.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Much --> many
Much + uncountable noun (tanpa tambahan -s)
many + countable noun (plural)

25. The capital of the Confederacy was originally in Mobile, but they were moved to Richmond.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they --> it was
Pronoun reference: they (plural) seharusnya it (singular) kembali ke subject kalimat yang singular (the capital)

26. A pearl develops when a tiny grain of sand or stone or some another irritant accidentally enters into the shell of a pearl oyster.
Pembahasan Jawaban: another --> other
some + other

27. The English horn is an alto oboe with a pitch one-fifth lower than the soprano oboe.
the --> that of
Comparison degree: yang dibandingkan ialah "a pitch one-fifth" bukan alto & oboe.

28. In the Milky Way galaxy, the most recent observed supernova appeared in 1604.
Pembahasan Jawaban: recent --> recently
Adverb + adjective + noun: recently (adverb) + observed (adjective) + supernova (noun)

29. Never in the history of humanity has there been more people living on this relatively small planet.
Pembahasan Jawaban: has (singular) --> have (plural)
Kalimat di ats merupakan kalimat inversion (pembalikan: V + S); ditandai adanya negartive expression (never) di awal kalimat. Subejct kalimat ialah people (plural).

30. Because of the mobility of Americans today, it is difficult for they to put down real roots.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they --> them
they digunakan sebagai subject sementara them sebagai object. dalam kalimat di atas them digunakn sebagai objetc dari preposition (for).

31. For five years after the Civil War, Robert E. Lee served to president of Washington College, which was later called Washington and Lee.
Pembahasan Jawaban: to --> as
Pasangan phrase: served + as

32. The number of wild horses on Assateague is increasing lately, resulting in overgrazed marsh and dune grasses.
Pembahasan Jawaban: is --> have been
Subject Verb Agreement: The number (plural) + have been (plural)

33. Hypnoses was successfully used during World War II to treat battle fatigue.
Pembahasan Jawaban: hypnoses (plural) --> hypnosis (singular)
Subject Verb Agreement: Verb kalimat di atas berbentuk singular (was) jadi kita butuh subject yang singular (hypnosis)

34. The lobster, like many crustaceans, can cast off a damaging appendage and regenerate a new appendage to nearly normal size.
Pembahasan Jawaban: damaging (yang merusak) --> damaged (yang rusak)

35. Humans develop normally twenty primary, or deciduous, teeth and thirty-two permanent ones.
Pembahasan Jawaban: develop normally --> normally develop
Verb + object: tidak boleh ada perantara antara verb dan object

36. The curricula of American public schools are set in individual states; they do not determine by the federal government.
Pembahasan Jawaban: do no determine (tidak memutuskan) --> are not determined (tidak diputuskan)
they kembali mengarah ke curricula (kurikulum)

37. The fact that the sophisticated technology has become part of revolution in travel delivery systems has not made travel schedules less hectic.
Pembahasan Jawaban: revolution --> a  revolution
uncountable noun tidak boleh berdiri sendiri tanpa adanya penjelas (termasuk article a, an, the) apakah noun itu tunggal atau jamak.

38. Balanchine's plotless ballets, such Jewels and The Four Temperaments, present dance purely as a celebration of the movement of the human body.
Pembahasan Jawaban: such --> such as (contohnya)

39. In a solar battery, a photosensitive semiconducting substance such as silicon crystal is the source of electrician.
Pembahasan Jawaban: electrician --> electricity
Dair konteks kalimat yang di maksud adalah listriknya bukan orangnya (electrician).

40. In early days, hydrochloric acid was done by heating a mixture of sodium chloride with iron sulfate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: done (dikerjakan) --> made (dibuat / dihasilkan)

[Continue reading...]

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 1 by Longman)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Structure (Complete Test 1 by Longman)
Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test

1. _______ range in color from pale yellow to
bright orange.
(A) Canaries which
(B) Canaries
(C) That canaries
(D) Canaries that are
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas butuh subject. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya B yang memenuhi syarat.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: Mesti terdapat Subject dan Verb: Canaries (subject) + range (verb)

2. _______ of precious gems is determined by their hardness, color, and brilliance.
(A) The valuable
(B) It is the value
(C) It is valuable
(D) The value
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kata kerja (is determined) sudah ada. Jadi kita hanya mencari subject kalimat. Hanya pilihan jawaban D yang bisa menjadi subject.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: Mesti terdapat Subject dan Verb

3. _______ a tornado spins in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, it spins in the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere.
(A) However
(B) Because of
(C) Although
(D) That
Pembahasan Jawaban: Terdapat dua klausa (S + V): a tornado spins & it spins. Jadi kita butuh connector untuk menghubungkan ke dua klausa. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya C yang memenuhi syarat.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: 2 clause butuh 1 connector. 3 clause butuh dua connector. 

4. The Caldecott Medal, _______ for the best children's picture book, is awarded each January.
(A) a prize
(B) which prize
(C) is a prize which
(D) is a prize
Pembahasan Jawaban: 
Cara 1: Kalimat di atas terdapat subject (The Caldecott Medal) dan verb (is awarded), ini berarti kalimat sudah lengkap. Kita sudah tidak butuh lagi kata kerja. Otomatis pilihan pilihan C dan D sudah tereliminasi. Pilihan B juga ikut tereliminasi. Kalimat di atas cuma terdiri dari 1 clause jadi tidak butuh connector (which). Jadi pilihan jawaban benar ialah A.
Cara 2: Materi Appositive. Appositive ialah noun yang menjelaskan noun lainnya (dalam TOEFL umumnya subject). Jadi kita cuma butuh noun untuk menjelaskan subject (The Caldecott Medal). Dan yang terdapat noun ialah pilihan jawaban A.

5. The horn of the rhinoceros consists of a cone of tight bundles of keratin _______ from the epidermis.
(A) grow
(B) grows
(C) growing
(D) they grow
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas terdapat Subject (the horn) dan Verb (consists). Jadi kita tidak butuh lagi verb lainnya. Otomatis pilihan jawaban A dan B salah. Pilihan jawaban D juga salah karena membuat clause lain. Ingat 2 clause harus terdapat 1 connector. Jadi tersisalah pilihan jawaban C.

6. Most species of heliotropes are weeds, _______ of them are cultivated.
(A) some
(B) but some
(C) for some species
(D) some species
Pembahasan Jawaban: Di kalimat atas, terdapat 2 verb (are) dan (are cultivated). Jadi terdapat dua clause. Ingat 2 clause harus terdapat 1 connector. Hanya pilihan jawaban B yang berisi connector (but).

7. Thunder occurs as _______ through air, causing the heated air to expand and collide with layers of cooler air.
(A) an electrical charge
(B) passes an electrical charge
(C) the passing of an electrical charge
(D) an electrical charge passes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Di kalimat di atas terdapat 1 clause (Thunder occurs) dan 1 connector (as). Jadi bisa ditebak kalimat di atas mesti terdapat dua clause. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya D yang berbentuk clause. Ingat clause terdiri dari Subject dan Verb.

8. Researchers have long debated _______ Saturn's moon Titan contains hydrocarbon oceans and lakes.
(A) over it
(B) whether it
(C) whether
(D) whether over
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas terdapat 2 clause. Clause 1 (Researchers have long debated); clause 2 (Saturn's moon Titan contains). Jadi kita tinggal butuh 1 connector. Hanya pilihan jawaban C yang terdapat memenuhis syarat.

9. Nimbostratus clouds are thick, dark grey clouds _______ forebode rain.
(A) what
(B) which
(C) what they
(D) which they
Pembahasan Jawaban: kalimat di atas terdapat subject (Nimbostratus clouds) dan verb (are). JJuga terdapat verb (forebode) jadi terdapat dua clause. Dua clause butuh 1 connector. Jawaban yang benar ialah B. Which berfungsi sebagai connector sekaligus sebagai subject dari verb (forebode). Materi ini masuk dalam materi "Adjective Clause".

10. _______ in several early civilizations, a cubit was based on the length of the forearm from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow.
(A) It was used as a measurement
(B) A measurement was used
(C) The use of a measurement
(D) Used as a measurement
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Used as a measurement in several early civilizations (digunakan sebagai sebuah ukuran di wal-awal peradaban silam), a cubit 
11. Only when air and water seep through its outer coat _______
(A) does a seed germinate
(B) to the germination of a seed
(C) a seed germinates
(D) for a seed to germinate
Pembahasan Jawaban: terdapat negative expression (only) di awal kalimat. Dalam TOEFL ini mendandakan adanya inversion (pembalikan S + V --> V + S): Bentuk inversion umum dipakai dalam bentuk question. Hanya pilihan jawaban A memenuhi syarat.

12. _______ seasonal rainfall, especially in regions near the tropics, is winds that blow in an opposite direction in winter than in summer.
(A) Causing
(B) That cause
(C) To cause
(D) What causes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah subject untuk verb (is). Dari pilihan jawaban yang memnuhi syarat secara structure dan meaning ialah pilihan jawaban D. Materi ini masuk dalam katergori Noun Clause di mana noun clause bertindak sebagai subject kalimat. Pilhan jawaban A, B, dan C semuanya bisa digunakan sebagai subject hanya saja tidak sesuai dg kontek kalimat di atas. SAngat mudah dengan menggunakan pendekatan makna translation).


13. The extinct Martian volcano Olympus Mons is approximately three times as _______ Mount Everest.
(A) high
(B) high as is
(C) higher than
(D) the highest of
Pembahasan Jawaban: as + adjective + as. Pilihan jawaban B yang terdapat as.

14. The flight instructor, _______ at the air base, said that orders not to fight had been given.
(A) when interviewed
(B) when he interviewed
(C) when his interview
(D) when interviewing
: Pilihan benar ialah A. when interviewed (ketika diwawancara).

15. In the northern and central parts of the state of Idaho _______ and churning rivers.
(A) majestic mountains are found
(B) found majestic mountains
(C) are found majestic mountains
(D) finding majestic mountains
Pembahasan Jawaban: terdapat place expression 9In the northern and central parts of the state of Idaho) di awal kalimat. Dalam TOEFL ini menandakan adanya inversion (pembalikan S + V --> V + S): Hanya pilihan jawaban C memenuhi syarat.
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Friday, April 18, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 3)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 3)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 3 by ETS)
Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban

 

16Bacterial cultures are used commercially in the preparation of food products such that yogurt, sour cream, and vinegar.
Pembahasan Jawaban: such that --> such as
Pasangan phrase

17.Anyone with absolute ,or perfect,pitch are able to identify by ear any note at some standard pitch or to sing a specified note at will.
Pembahasan Jawaban: are --> is 
anyone (singular) + is (singular)

18. Sea horses usually live along the shore among seaweed and other plants to which they cling to by their tails.
Pembahasan Jawaban: cling to --> cling (double to)
Adjective clause. 
dua bentuk: (1) to which they cling by their tails (2) which they cling to by their tails. Bentuk pertama umum digunakan untuk situasi formal. 

19. Babies have soft spots between the bones of their skulls, which allowing for further growth.
Pembahasan Jawaban: allowing (adjective / present participle) --> allow (verb)
Adjective clause: Connector/Subject + Verb à which (connector/subject)

20. T.S.Elot, who a poet, playwright, literary critic, and editor, was a leader of the Modernist movement in poetry.
Pembahasan Jawaban: who --> dihilangkan saja
Appositive: noun (phrase) yang menjelaskan noun lainnya (yang umumnya posisi subject dalam soal TOEFL)

21. The Pacific Ocean comprises almost the entire boundary western of North and South America.
Pembahasan Jawaban: boundary western --> western boundary 
Noun phrase: Adjective +noun 

22Established in 1948, the State University of New York is the singly largest university system in the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: singly largest --> single largest
Pasangan phrase

23. Photography disseminates information about humanity and nature, records the visible world, and extension human knowledge into areas the eye cannot penetrate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: extension --> extends
Parallel Structure: disseminates (verb), records (verb), extends (verb)

24. Because of their rapidly changing economically fortunes, many frontier towns of the American West underwent spectacular fluctuations in population in the nineteenth century.
Pembahasan Jawaban: economically (adverb) --> economical (adjective) | rapidly (adverb) changing (adjective) economically (adverb) fortunes (noun)
Noun Phrase: adverb + adjective + noun 

25. Virtually no disease exists today for which there is no drug that can be given, neither to cure the disease or to alleviate its symptoms.
Pembahasan Jawaban: neither --> either
Paired Conjunction: either .. or ... , neither ... nor, both ... and

26.Calcium is essential for blood clotting, for the action of certain enzymes, and for the normal contraction and relax of muscles.
Pembahasan Jawaban: relax (verb) --> relaxation (noun)
1. for the relaxation of muscles (preposition + noun)
2. the noun + of + noun

27.The large collection of the Williams College Museum of Art includes ancient and medieval art ,but much exhibits are modern or contemporary.
Pembahasan Jawaban: much --> many
Much + singular nouns (uncountable); many + plural nouns (countable)

28.The technique of spectroscopy allows analyst of incoming light after it has been separated into its component wavelengths by passage through a prism.
Pembahasan Jawaban: analyst (person) --> analysis (thing)
Noun: sesuaikan posisi kata.

29. Today, fifty years after its construction, the Alaska Highway conveys 40,000 vehicles in normal year.
Pembahasan Jawaban: in normal --> in a normal
Noun: year merupakan countable noun. Jadi mesti ada artikel untuk mengetahui secara pasti berapa tahun (year) yang dimaksud. Artikel yang bisa digunakan dapat berupa: a, an, the. Disesuaikan makna kalimat.

30. Since prehistoric times, artists have been arranged colors on surfaces in ways that express their ideas about people, the world, and religion.
Pembahasan Jawaban: have been arranged (telah diatur) -> have arranged (telah mengatur)
Passive Voice:

31. Few substances look less alike than coal and diamonds, yet both are fashioned from same elemental carbon.
Pembahasan Jawaban: from same à from the same
Same umumnya bersama dengan the -à the same

32. Meteorologists can program their computes to scan for a specific set of weather criteria, such as falling barometric pressure, increase cloud cover, and rising humidity.
Pembahasan Jawaban: increase (to infinitive) à increasing (gerund)
Parallel Structure: falling (gerund), increasing, rising (gerund)

33. Obsidian is formed when siliceous lava cools too rapidly to crystallized into rock-forming minerals.
Pembahasan Jawaban: crystallized à crystallize atau be crystallized 
Makna yang diminta kalimat adalah makna pasif. Jika Noun + to + infinitive maka to infinitive bermakna pasif. Contoh lain: this is the best book to read (inilah buku yang paling bagus untuk dibaca)


34. European settlers in North America moved from the Atlantic coast across 3,000 miles forests, grasslands, deserts, and mountains until they reached the Pacific Ocean.
Pembahasan Jawaban: 3,000 miles forests à 3,000 mile forests
Ingat noun yang berfungsi / berposisi adjective tidak menggunakan tambahn -S

35. Philosophy tries to discover the nature of true and knowledge and to find what is of basic value and importance in life.
Pembahasan Jawaban: true (adjective) – truth (noun)
Preposition + noun (of + truth)

36. In this world of high technology, it is easy to forget that the most important tools ever developed for learning is still the book.
Pembahasan Jawaban: tools (plural) à tool (singular) disesuaikan dengan kata kerja is (singular)
Subject Verb Agreement: singular subject + singular verb; plural subject + plural verb

37. The element potassium makes up less than one half percentage of the human body.
Pembahasan Jawaban: percentage --> percent

38. Twenty thousand years ago a sheet of ice a thousand meters thick covered the coastal region which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located.
Which à in which
Pembahasan Jawaban: adjective clause: located in
Ada dua bentuk: (1) in which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located (Formal); (2) which the cities of Vancouver and Juneau now are located in (Informal)

39. The Crow, Blackfoot, and Sioux tribes traditionally adorned they dwellings and costumes with colorful and highly valued beaded decorations.
Pembahasan Jawaban: they à their
Penggunaan Pronoun: they + verb; their + noun

40. In the late 1800’s, United States painter Thomas Eakins develop broad, powerful Realist style that became almost expressionistic in his later years.
Pembahasan Jawaban: develop (present tense) à developed (past tense)
Tense: in the late 1800’s menandakan waktu yang lampau (past)


[Continue reading...]

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Reading -Jupiter's Moons)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Reading -Jupiter's Moons)

Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban
Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban
Europe is the smallest of planet Jupiter's four largest moons and the second moon out from Jupiter. Until 1979, it was just another astronomy textbook statistic. Then came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within days, Europe was transformed--in our perception, at least--into one of the solar system's most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail, especially from far away. Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell. And this analogy is not far off the mark.

The surface of Europe is almost pure water ice, but a nearly complete absence of craters indicates that Europe's surface ice resembles Earth's Antarctic ice cap. The eggshell analogy may be quite accurate since the ice could be as little as a few kilometers thick--a tree shell around what is likely a subsurface liquid ocean that, in turn, encases a rocky core. The interior of Europe has been kept warm over the cons by tidal forces generated by the varying gravitational tugs of the other big moons as they wheel around Jupiter. The tides on Europe pull and relax in an endless cycle. The resulting internal heat keeps what would otherwise be ice melted almost to the surface. The cracklike marks on Europe's icy face appear to be fractures where water or slush oozes from below.

Soon after Voyager 2's encounter with Jupiter in 1979, when the best images of Europe were obtained, researchers advanced the startling idea that Europe's subsurface ocean might harbor life. Life processes could have begun when Jupiter was releasing a vast store of internal heat. Jupiter's early heat was produced by the compression of the material forming the giant planet. Just as the Sun is far less radiant today than the primal Sun, so the internal heat generated by Jupiter is minor compared to its former intensity. During this warm phase, some 4.6 billion years ago, Europe's ocean may have been liquid right to the surface, making it a crucible for life.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The effect of the tides on Europe's interior
(B) Temperature variations on Jupiter's moons
(C) Discoveries leading to a theory about one of Jupiter's moons
(D) Techniques used by Voyager 2 to obtain close-up images
Pembahasan Jawaban
Skill: Main Idea Question (Pertanyaan Ide Pokok)
Cara menjawab ide pokok ialah dengan melihat kalimat pertama setiap paragraf.

2. The word "intriguing" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) changing
(B) perfect
(C) visible
(D) fascinating
Pembahasan Jawaban
Skill: Vocabulary Question (Pertanyaan tentang pemahaman kosakata)
Cara menjawab soal kosakata ialah dengan menyesuaikan konteks makna kalimat dari kosakata yang ditanyakan.

3. In line 7, the author mentions "cracks in an eggshell" in order to help readers
(A) visualize Europe as scientists saw it in the Voyager 2 images
(B) appreciate the extensive and detailed information available by viewing Europe from far away
(C) understand the relationship of Europe to the solar system
(D) recognize the similarity of Europe to Jupiter's other moons
Pembahasan Jawaban
Cara menjawab soal seperti ini ialah dengan memahami kalimat di mana phrase tersebut dan kalimat-kalimat sebelumnya.
Then came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within days, Europe was transformed--in our perception, at least--into one of the solar system's most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail, especially from far away. Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that astronomy textbooks prior to 1979
(A) provided many contradictory statistics about Europe
(B) considered Europe the most important of Jupiter's moons
(C) did not emphasize Europe because little information of interest was available
(D) did not mention Europe because it had not yet been discovered
Pembahasan Jawaban: Jawaban terdapat pada sebagian besar paragraf pertama.
Europe is the smallest of planet Jupiter's four largest moons and the second moon out from Jupiter. Until 1979, it was just another astronomy textbook statistic. Then came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within days, Europe was transformed--in our perception, at least--into one of the solar system's most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail, especially from far away. 

5. What does the author mean by stating in line 7 that "this analogy is not far off the mark"?
(A) The definition is not precise.
(B) The discussion lacks necessary information.
(C) The differences are probably significant.
(D) The comparison is quite appropriate.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Pahami kalimat dari phrase dan kalimat-kalimat sebelumnya.
Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell. And this analogy is not far off the mark.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that Europe and Antarctica have in common which of the following?
(A) Both appear to have a surface with many craters.
(B) Both may have water beneath a thin, hard surface.
(C) Both have an ice cap that is melting rapidly.
(D) Both have areas encased by a rocky exterior.
Pembahasan Jawaban: complete absence (betul-betul tidak ada)
The surface of Europe is almost pure water ice, but a nearly complete absence of craters indicates that Europe's surface ice resembles Earth's Antarctic ice cap.

7. The word "endless" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) new
(B) final
(C) temporary
(D) continuous
Pembahasan Jawaban: endless (tak berujung) = continuous (berkelanjutan)

8. According to the passage, what is the effect of Jupiter's other large moons on Europe?
(A) They prevent Europe's subsurface waters from freezing.
(B) They prevent tides that could damage Europe's surface.
(C) They produce the very hard layer of ice that characterizes Europe.
(D) They assure that the gravitational pull on Europe is maintained at a steady level.
Pembahasan Jawaban: Jawaban terdapat pada kalimat Jupiter's early heat was produced by the compression of the material forming the giant planet.

9 According to the passage, what is believed to cause the thin lines seen on Europa’s surface?
(A) A long period of extremely high tides
(B) Water breaking through from beneath the surface ice 
(C) The continuous pressure of slush on top of the ice
(D) Heat generated by the hot rocky core
[Continue reading...]

Sunday, April 13, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 2)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban Written Expression (Model Test 2)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2 by ETS)
Written Expression Model Test 2 
Semoga soal di bawah Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2) dapat menambah wawasan Anda dalam menjawab soal-soal TOEFL terkhusus bagian Written Expression. Soal di bawah ini merupakan soal asli dari pihak penyelenggara tes TOEFL. Soal yang telah diujikan tahun-tahun sebelumnya.16. The world's water balance is regulated by the constant circulation of water in Liquid and vapor tom among the oceans, the atmospheric, and the land.
Pembahasan Jawaban: atmospheric (adjective) ----> atmosphere 
Paralel Structure _--> the oceans (noun), the atmosphere (noun), and the land (noun).

17. The major purpose of the United States Department of Education are to ensure equal educational opportunity for all and to improve the quality of education.
Pembahasan Jawaban: purpose --> purposes
Subject Verb Agreement / Singular Subject + Singular Verb;  Plural Subject + Plural Verb

18. Massive gains in computer speed, power, and reliably have been largely due to advances in silicon technologies and manufacturing processes.
Pembahasan Jawaban: reliably (adverb) --> reliability
Paralel Structure --> speed (noun), power (noun), and reliability (noun)

19. The sunflower, the official state flower of Kansas, and is widespread in the prairies of the western United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: and is --> is

20. Lake Superior, part of the United States-Canadian boundary, is a largest freshwater lake in the world.
Pembahasan Jawaban: a --> the

21. The snapper, a large-headed fish with a long dorsal fin, is named to its characteristic way of suddenly, shutting its mouth.
Pembahasan Jawaban: named to --> name after/for
Pasangan kata (Phrase)

22. The aim of the decorative arts is to beautiful our surroundings.
Pembahasan Jawaban: to beautiful (adjective) --> to beautify (verb)

23. Modern digital synthesizers, based on microprocessors, are virtually unlimited in the number and range of musical sounds it can produce.
Pembahasan Jawaban: it ---> they
Pronoun Reference --> they refers to Modern digital synthesizers

24. During the years he composed, Charles Ives was isolation from the music world; none of his major works was publicly performed.
Pembahasan Jawaban:  isolation from --> isolated form

25. Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy that attempts  to eliminate conflict by alter the personality in a positive way.
Pembahasan Jawaban: by alter --> by altering
Preposition + Verb-ing

26. Globally, the 1990's stood out as the warmest decade for what we have weather records.
Pembahasan Jawaban: for what --> for which
Adejctive Clause 

27. Silicon chips are reliable and cheap to produce in large numbers and are used them in computers, calculators, programmed household appliances, and most electronic applications.
Pembahasan Jawaban: used them --> used

28. Because its pitch cannot easily be altered, the oboe serves as the standard which by the symphony orchestra is tuned.
Pembahasan Jawaban: which by --> by which
Adjective Clause

29. Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that form cushions between tendons and bones and protect them while movement.
Pembahasan Jawaban: while --> during
While + Subject + Verb; During + Noun

30. In 1916, United States suffragist Alice Paul founded the National Woman's Patty, a political party dedicate to establishing equal rights for women.
Pembahasan Jawaban: dedicate --> dedicated
Subject Verb Agreement / Tense 

31. The spice cinnamon and the drugs cascara and quinine all come from bark, the protective out layer of stems and roots of woody plants.
Pembahasan Jawaban: 

32. Tunas migrate long distances over all the world's oceans and occupy tropicaltemperate, and even some the cooler waters.
Pembahasan Jawaban: some the --> some of the

33. Taste buds, small sensory organ located on the tongue and palate, recognize four primary tastes: sweet, sour, salty and bitter.
Pembahasan Jawaban: organ --> organs
Organs ---> tastes buds

34. Astronauts receive extensive training to prepare themselves both physically and psychologically for complexity and rigor of a space mission.
Pembahasan Jawaban: complexity --> the complexity
Article

35. By 1900 several prominent technical institutions, including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, fashioned its own educational offerings to meet the industrial needs of the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: its ---> their
Pronounce Reference --> their refers "several prominent technical to institutions"

36. Some of the earliest mechanical devices were designed to raise water from streams for the irrigate of crops.
Pembahasan Jawaban: irrigate --> irrigation 
The + noun + of

37. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 increased the territory of the United States by approximate 846,000 square miles, practically doubling the area of the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: approximate --> approximately 

38. A most useful tool for analyzing the elemental composition of fossils is the electron probe, a modify electron microscope. 
Pembahasan Jawaban: modify --> modified
Noun Phrase (Adjective + Noun)

39. Few substance on Earth equal the beauty of gemstones such as twinkling diamonds, green emeralds, red rubies, blue sapphires, and multicolored opals.
Pembahasan Jawaban: substance ---> substances
Few + Plural Noun

40. For the purposes of the fine and decorative arts, metals have been used either in their simple state and in uncomplicated alloys.
Pembahasan Jawaban: and --> or
Either + or
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