Sunday, April 13, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2 by ETS)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2 by ETS)
Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2 by ETS)
Written Expression Model Test 2 by ETS
Semoga soal di bawah Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Written Expression Model Test 2 by ETS) dapat menambah wawasan Anda dalam menjawab soal-soal TOEFL terkhusus bagian Written Expression. Soal di bawah ini merupakan soal asli dari pihak penyelenggara tes TOEFL. Soal yang telah diujikan tahun-tahun sebelumnya.

16. The world's water balance is regulated by the constant circulation of water in Liquid and vapor tom among the oceans, the atmospheric, and the land.
Pembahasan Jawaban: atmospheric (adjective) ----> atmosphere 
Paralel Structure _--> the oceans (noun), the atmosphere (noun), and the land (noun).

17. The major purpose of the United States Department of Education are to ensure equal educational opportunity for all and to improve the quality of education.
Pembahasan Jawaban: purpose --> purposes
Subject Verb Agreement / Singular Subject + Singular Verb;  Plural Subject + Plural Verb

18. Massive gains in computer speed, power, and reliably have been largely due to advances in silicon technologies and manufacturing processes.
Pembahasan Jawaban: reliably (adverb) --> reliability
Paralel Structure --> speed (noun), power (noun), and reliability (noun)

19. The sunflower, the official state flower of Kansas, and is widespread in the prairies of the western United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: and is --> is

20. Lake Superior, part of the United States-Canadian boundary, is a largest freshwater lake in the world.
Pembahasan Jawaban: a --> the

21. The snapper, a large-headed fish with a long dorsal fin, is named to its characteristic way of suddenly, shutting its mouth.
Pembahasan Jawaban: named to --> name after/for
Pasangan kata (Phrase)

22. The aim of the decorative arts is to beautiful our surroundings.
Pembahasan Jawaban: to beautiful (adjective) --> to beautify (verb)

23. Modern digital synthesizers, based on microprocessors, are virtually unlimited in the number and range of musical sounds it can produce.
Pembahasan Jawaban: it ---> they
Pronoun Reference --> they refers to Modern digital synthesizers

24. During the years he composed, Charles Ives was isolation from the music world; none of his major works was publicly performed.
Pembahasan Jawaban:  isolation from --> isolated form

25. Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy that attempts  to eliminate conflict by alter the personality in a positive way.
Pembahasan Jawaban: by alter --> by altering
Preposition + Verb-ing

26. Globally, the 1990's stood out as the warmest decade for what we have weather records.
Pembahasan Jawaban: for what --> for which
Adejctive Clause 

27. Silicon chips are reliable and cheap to produce in large numbers and are used them in computers, calculators, programmed household appliances, and most electronic applications.
Pembahasan Jawaban: used them --> used

28. Because its pitch cannot easily be altered, the oboe serves as the standard which by the symphony orchestra is tuned.
Pembahasan Jawaban: which by --> by which
Adjective Clause

29. Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that form cushions between tendons and bones and protect them while movement.
Pembahasan Jawaban: while --> during
While + Subject + Verb; During + Noun

30. In 1916, United States suffragist Alice Paul founded the National Woman's Patty, a political party dedicate to establishing equal rights for women.
Pembahasan Jawaban: dedicate --> dedicated
Subject Verb Agreement / Tense 

31. The spice cinnamon and the drugs cascara and quinine all come from bark, the protective out layer of stems and roots of woody plants.
Pembahasan Jawaban: 

32. Tunas migrate long distances over all the world's oceans and occupy tropicaltemperate, and even some the cooler waters.
Pembahasan Jawaban: some the --> some of the

33. Taste buds, small sensory organ located on the tongue and palate, recognize four primary tastes: sweet, sour, salty and bitter.
Pembahasan Jawaban: organ --> organs
Organs ---> tastes buds

34. Astronauts receive extensive training to prepare themselves both physically and psychologically for complexity and rigor of a space mission.
Pembahasan Jawaban: complexity --> the complexity

35. By 1900 several prominent technical institutions, including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, fashioned its own educational offerings to meet the industrial needs of the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: its ---> their
Pronounce Reference --> their refers "several prominent technical to institutions"

36. Some of the earliest mechanical devices were designed to raise water from streams for the irrigate of crops.
Pembahasan Jawaban: irrigate --> irrigation 
The + noun + of

37. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 increased the territory of the United States by approximate 846,000 square miles, practically doubling the area of the United States.
Pembahasan Jawaban: approximate --> approximately 

38. A most useful tool for analyzing the elemental composition of fossils is the electron probe, a modify electron microscope. 
Pembahasan Jawaban: modify --> modified
Noun Phrase (Adjective + Noun)

39. Few substance on Earth equal the beauty of gemstones such as twinkling diamonds, green emeralds, red rubies, blue sapphires, and multicolored opals.
Pembahasan Jawaban: substance ---> substances
Few + Plural Noun

40. For the purposes of the fine and decorative arts, metals have been used either in their simple state and in uncomplicated alloys.
Pembahasan Jawaban: and --> or
Either + or
[Continue reading...]

Sunday, March 30, 2014

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: Pacific Ocean

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: Pacific Ocean

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
Next to its sheer size, the profound isolation of its many small islands is the most distinctive feature of the Pacific Ocean. Over 25,000 islands are scattered across the surface of the Pacific, more than in all the other oceans combined, but their land area adds up to little more than 125,000 square kilometers, about the size of New York State, and their inhabitants total less than two million people, about a quarter of the number that live in New York City. The oceanic islands of the Pacific are some of the most isolated places on Earth. Many are uninhabitable, by virtue of their small size and particular characteristics, but even the most favored are very isolated fragments of land, strictly circumscribed by the ocean, strictly limited in terms of the numbers of people they can support. This basic fact of environmental circumstance has been the most pervasive influence in determining the social arrangements, and cultural practices of the people that settled in the Pacific Islands.

The peopling of the Pacific Islands has been described as the greatest feat of maritime colonization in human history. Contrary to the conclusions of Thor Heyerdahl's Kon-Tiki expedition of 1946, the evidence of plant dispersal, archaeology, linguistics, and genetics now shows quite conclusively that the Pacific Islands were not populated from tile east by South Americans who drifted on balsa-wood rafts and the prevailing wind and current, but from the west, by groups from mainland Asia who gradually spread from island to island out into the Pacific. The process began over 40,000 years ago and reached Easter Island the most isolated place on Earth-about 1.500 years ago. It ended about 1,000 years ago, when people first settled in Hawaii and New Zealand.

Simply surviving those ocean crossings of indeterminate length, in open canoes, to arrive on the shores of uninhabited and hitherto unknown islands, was a formidable achievement. But having found an oasis of land in a watery wilderness, crossed its reef, and landed, on its shores, the survivors then faced a series of pressing problems for which solutions had to be found quickly if the small group was to become a vigorous, self- sustaining island population.

32. The word "scattered" in line 2 is closest in meaning toD
(A) widely known
(B) usually estimated
(C) rarely inhabited
(D) irregularly distributed

33. Why does the author mention New population of the Pacific York City in line 5?
(A) To emphasize how small the Islands is
(B) To emphasize the extreme distances between the Pacific Islands and other regions
(C) To note the economic ties of the Pacific Islands to other regions
(D) To note the lack of urban environments on the Pacific Islands

34.The phrase "by virtue or" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(A) regarding
(B) because of
(C) taking advantage of
(D) in place of

35. The word "circumscribed" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) located
(B) flooded
(C) restricted
(D) pushed

36. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as evidence used to determine the origins of Pacific Islands people?
(A) Oral histories
(B) Plant dispersal
(C) Linguistics
(D) Archaeology

37. According to the-passage, where did the original inhabitants of the Pacific Islands come from?
(A) South America
(B) Hawaii
(C) New Zealand
(D) Asia

38.The word "It” in line 16 refers to
(A) Pacific
(B) process
(C) isolated place
(D) Earth

39. The word "indeterminate" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) undecided
(B) uncertain
(C) unacceptable
(D) increasing

40. The passage is most likely followed by a discussion of
(A) how settlers adapted to newly discovered Pacific Ocean Islands
(B) the design and construction of canoes used in the Pacific Islands
(C) the characteristics sties of reefs in the Pacific Islands
(D) how early explorers of the Pacific Ocean found their way from island to island
[Continue reading...]

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: written records of Old European culture

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading: written records of Old European culture

Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
Soal TOEFL dan Kunci Jawaban -Reading
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still shrouded in mystery. There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term sometimes used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modem world, and we cannot yet translate the Old European script, Scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian, which used the cuneiform script, because of the fortuitous discovery of bilingual inscriptions, When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decipher them. Then inscriptions found in baa at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: these inscriptions were written in cuneiform and in two other ancient languages, Old Persian and New Elamite--languages that had already been deciphered. It took several decades, but scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.

Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery until French troops unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Egyptian hieratic, a simplified form of hieroglyphs. The Rosetta stone thwarted scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were decoded using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, we have no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.

Tim incursions of Indo-European tribes into Old Europe from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. caused a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. These incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where the Old European cultures abundantly employed script. The Old European way of life deteriorated rapidly, although pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia, ~ new peoples spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually vanished.

22. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Reasons for the failure to understand the written records of Old European culture
(B) Influences on the development of Old European script
(C) Similarities between Old European script and other ancient writing systems
(D) Events leading to the discovery of Old European script

23. According to the passage, New Elamite is
(A) a language that was written in the cuneiform script
(B) a modem language that came from Old Persian
(C) one of the languages spoken by the Old Europeans
(D) a language that was understood by the late eighteenth century

24. According to the passage, scholarswere able to decipher cuneiform script with the help of
(A) the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian languages
(B) Old Persian
(C) tablets written in Old European
(D) a language spoken in eighteenth century Iran

25. The word “fortuitous” in line 5 is closet in meaning to
(A) important
(B) sudden
(C) early
(D) lucky

26. The word "them" in line 6 refers to
(A) Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian
(B) bilingual inscriptions
(C) cuneiform tablets
(D) scholars

27. When does the passage suggest that ancient Egyptian hieroglypttic script was finally deciphered?
(A) At around the same time as cuneiform script was deciphered
(B) Shortly before the Rosetta stone was unearthed
(C) As soon as additional bilingual inscriptions became available to scholars
(D) A few decades after the hieratic script was decoded

28. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the Rosetta stone?
(A) It was found by scholars trying to decode ancient languages.
(B) It contains two versions of hieroglyphic script.
(C) Several of its inscriptions were decoded within a few months of its discovery.
(D) Most of its inscriptions have still not been decoded.

29. The word "thwarted" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) continued
(B) influenced
(C) encouraged
(D) frustrated

30. According to the passage, Indo-European incursions caused Old European populations to
(A) separate into different tribes
(B) move eastward
(C) change their ways of living obtaining food
(D) start recording historical events in Writing

31. The author mentions the Balkans in the passage in order to explain why
(A) Indo-European languages were slow to spread in Old Europe
(B) the inhabitants of Old Europe were not able to prevent Indo-European incursions
(C) the use of the Old European script declined
(D) the Old European culture survived for a time after the Indo-European incursions

[Continue reading...]

Monday, March 24, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Structure Model Test 4 by ETS)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Structure Model Test 4 by ETS)

Soal TOEFL Structure dan Pembahasan Jawaban
Soal TOEFL Structure dan Pembahasan Jawaban
Soal TOEFL Structure dan Pembahasan Jawaban
1.The musical comedy Oklahoma did much to expand the potential of the musical stage, and it encouraged others to attempt......
(a)original themes
(b)to original themes
(c)that were original themes
(d)how original themes
Pembahasan Jawaban: attempt (T) + Noun
--> Attempt (transitive verb)
--> Attempt + to infinitive
pilihan B salah karena to original themes bukan to infinitive.

2.Despite its fishlike form, the whale is......and will drown if submerged too long.
(a)an animal breathes air that
(b)an animal that breathes air
(c)an animal breathes air
(d)that an animal breathes air
Pembahasan Jawaban: Adjective Clause

3.The saguaro ,found in desert regions in the southwestern United States ,......cactus in the world.
(a)is the largest
(b)the largest
(c)that is the largest
(d)the largest that is a
Pembahasan Jawaban: Superlative Degree

4. It is said that United Stales literature ____________ individuality and identity in the twentieth century, after long imitation of European models.
(a)was achieved
(c)to achieve
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject + Verb (Sentences with Multiple Clause -Noun Clause)

5. Lucy Stone, ____________ first feminists in the United States, helped organize the American Woman Suffrage Association in 1869.
(a)the one
(b)who was the
(d)one of the
Pembahasan Jawaban: one of the + plural nouns / Appositive

6. _______, including climate, mineral content, and the permanency of surface water, wetlands may be mossy ,grassy , scrubby, or wooded.
(a)Depending on many factors
(b)Many factors depending on
(c)Factors depending on many
(d)On many factors depending
Pembahasan Jawaban: Sentences with one clause -Subject + Verb
Yang menjadi subject adalah gerund dan verb adalah may be

(7) Duke Ellington's orchestra, _______ his own often complex compositions, made many innovations in jazz.
(a)he played
(c)that it played
(d)was playing
Pembahasan Jawaban: Present Participle (Adjective) / Reduction in Adjective Clause

(8) The term "ice age" refers to any of several periods of time when glaciers covered considerably more of Earth's surface _______.
(a)as is today
(b)than today is
(c)than they do today
(d)that today
Pembahasan Jawaban: Comparative degree 

(9)From colonial times ,United States property owners agreed to tax themselves on the theory......directly from services that the government could provide.
(a)property owners benefited so that
(b)why property owners benefited
(c)that if property owners benefited
(d)that property owners benefited
Pembahasan Jawaban:  Adjective Clause

(10)Helium is not flammable and, next to hydrogen, is......
(a)known the lightest gas
(b)lightest the known gas
(c)the lightest gas known
(d)the known gas lightest
Pembahasan Jawaban:  Superlative & Past participle

(11)Wild eagles that survive to adulthood are believed......from 20 to 30 years.
(b)to live
(c)they live
(d)their living
Pembahasan Jawaban: Sentences with multiple clause / verb + to invinitive

(12)Portland, ......, is located primarily on two hilly peninsulas overlooking Casco Bay and its many island.
(a)which Maine's largest city
(b)Maine's largest city where
(c)is Maine's largest city
(d)Maine's largest city
Pembahasan Jawaban: Appositive

13.......widely used in the chemical industry, sodium carbonate is principally consumed by the glass industry.
(d)Except for
Pembahasan Jawaban: Reduction in adverbial clause

14.Cells, first identified by the early microscopists, began to be considered ...... in the nineteenth century.
(a)them as microcosm of living organisms
(b)the microcosm of living organisms
(c)the microcosm of living organisms to be
(d)as which ,the microcosm of living organisms
Pembahasan Jawaban: Consider + noun + noun/adjective
Contoh lain: 
I consider you an excellent student. --> an excellent student (noun)
I consider you intelligent. --> intelligent (adjective)

15.Like Jupiter, Saturn is a large, gaseous planet composed......of hydrogen and helium.
(a)it is mostly
(d)both are almost
Pembahasan Jawaban: composed + mostly of

[Continue reading...]

Sunday, March 23, 2014

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Structure Model Test 3 by ETS)

Soal Tes TOEFL dan Pembahasan Jawaban (Structure Model Test 3 by ETS)

1. The ancestors of the horse lived ..... and were about half a meter tall.
(A) years ago 60 million
(B) 60 million years ago
(C) ago 60 million years
(D) million years ago 60
2. The museum on Ellis Island, a former immigration station, contains documents and four centuries of United States immigration.
(A) related them
(B) related
(C) related that
(D) be related
3. _________, particularly the oxides of sulfur, greatly increases the rate at which rust forms.
(A) The presence of air pollutants
(B) Air pollutants are present
(C) Because the presence of air pollutants
(D) Air pollutants whose presence
4. The Sun, the Moon, and Earth have magnetic fields, and _________ evidence that the stellar that extend through vast regions galaxies have fields of space.
(A) which is
(B) is
(C) because
(D) There is
5. The “confederation school” poets of nineteenth-century Canada were primarily nature poets, _________ a wealth of eulogies to Canadian rural life.
(A) and producing
(B) who they produced
(C) producing
(D) whose production of
6. Since prehistoric people first applied natural pigments to cave walls, ______ have painted to express themselves.
(A) when artists
(B) artists
(C) artists who
(D) that artists
7. About 42 million bushels of oats are used annually ______ manufacture of breakfast foods in the United States.
(A) the
(B) is the
(C) in the
(D) to
8. Any acid can, in principle, neutralize any base, although ______ between some of the more reactive compounds.
(A) side reactions can occur
(B) the occurrence of side reactions can
(C) can side reactions occur
(D) side reactions that can occur
9. Just over two-thirds of Earth’s surface is covered by water, ...... more than 98 percent of this water is contained in the oceans.
(A) with
(B) which
(C) and
(D) resulting
10. Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in shapes, colors, and materials handle and to sort them.
(A) that almost compel one
(B) one compels
(C) that compel almost
(D) one is almost compelled
11. In 1978 the united States National Air and Space Administration selected Sally Ride.......the first woman astronaut.
(A) who being
(B) to be
(C) and being
(D) was
 12. Adhesions are ....... formed within the body in response to inflammation or injury.
(A) that thin bands of scar tissue
(B) they thin bands of scar tissue when
(C) thin bands of scar tissue
(D) thin bands of scar tissue able to
13. The planet Neptune is about 30 times ...... from the Sun as Earth is.
(A) far
(B) as far
(C) more far
(D) far that
14. Not until the 1850's ...... a few public-spirited citizens and state legislatures seek to rescue historic buildings in the United States from destruction or alteration.
(A) both
(B) came
(C) did
(D) when
15. ...... 200 bones forming the framework, or skeleton, of the human body.
(A) Being over
(B) There are over
(C) Where over
(D) Over

Pembahasan Jawaban

Number 1: (B) 60 million years ago
-----------> the simple one: 3 years ago.

Number 2: (B) related
-----------> artifacts related to four centuries of United States immigration.
-----------> REDUCTION IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: artifacts (THAT ARE) related to four centuries of United States immigration.

Number 3: (A) The presence of air pollutants
------------> MISSING SUBJECT

Number 4: (D) there is
------------> 3 CLAUSES
The Sun, the Moon, and Earth have magnetic fields.
There is evidence that the stellar have fields of space.
The stellar that extend through vast regions galaxies (Dependent clause: adjective clause).

Number 5: (C) producing
------------> nature poets, producing a wealth of eulogies to Canadian rural life.
------------> nature poets, who produced a wealth of eulogies to Canadian rural life

6. (B) artists
---> The sentence needs A SUBJECT

7. (C) in the
--> SUBJECT: About 42 million bushels of oats
--> VERB: are used
--> ADVERB: annually
--> ADVERB: in the manufacture of breakfast foods in the United States.

8. (A) side reactions can occur
--> The sentence requires a SUBJECT + VERB

Number 9: (C) and
----------> 2 clauses NEEDS a connector.

Number 10: (A) that almost compel one

Number 11: (B) to be
----------> INFINITIVE VS Gerund

Number 12: (C) thin bands of scar tissue

Number 13: (B) as far
------------> as + adjective/adverb + as

Number 14: (C) did
------------> Inversion

Number 15: (B) There are over
------------> The sentence requires a SUBJECT + VERB
[Continue reading...]
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